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    英语定语从句的用法大全(一)

    发布日期:2022-08-16 13:16    点击次数:133

    主语从句

    宾语从句

    表语从句

    同位语从句

    今天,小编就接着跟大家分享定语从句的内容。

    一、定义

    用来修饰句子中的名词或代词或其短语的从句,就叫做定语从句。其实,就是拿句子来做名词、代词或是其短语的定语。如:

    It's a book.

    I bought the book yesterday.

    以上两句话中,都有book一词,所以可以用定语从句把两句话连起来。即:

    It's the book that I bought yesterday.

    这句话中that引导的I bought yesterday就是一个定语从句,用来修饰the book。

    图片

    二、两个概念

    要想学好定语从句,得先弄清楚两个基本概念,即:先行词和关系词。

    (一)先行词

    所谓先行词,就是指定语从句所修饰的成分。这个名称倒是挺形象的,为什么?因为先行词永远出现在定语从句的前面,总是先走一步的,呵呵!

    (二)关系词

    所谓关系词,就是指用来连接定语从句的词语。关系词可以分为关系代词和关系副词。需要注意的是,关系代词或关系副词都要在从句中充当成分的,所以是不可或缺的,尽管当关系代词在从句中作宾语时,经常可以省略(本文会继续讲到这个情况)。

    我们在来看一下在第一节里出现的句子:

    It's the book that I bought yesterday.

    句中的the book就是先行词,被后面的从句I bought yesterday所修饰。而that就是关系代词,用来连接I bought yesterday,同时又在从句作bought的宾语,而且可以省略。

    定语从句的学习,其实就是有关根据先行词的特点选择合适的关系词的学习。

    图片

    三、分类

    按照定语从句与先行词的关系紧密与否,可以分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。

    (一)限定性定语从句

    限定性定语从句对先行词起着修饰限定作用,是不可或缺的。如:

    These are the apples that/which they sent us two days ago.

    (二)非限定性定语从句

    猎杀电视剧 93, 93); font-family: helvetica, Arial, 'Hiragino Sans GB', 'Microsoft YaHei', simsun; font-size: 16px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">非限定性定语从句对先行词起着补充说明作用,可要可不要。非限定性定语从句都会被逗号与先行词隔开。如:

    They have to walk to the South Pole, which is out of a plane's reach.

    【注意】

    1、当先行词具有唯一性的时候,就只能采用非限定性定语从句,否则就会产生歧义或误解。如:

    限定性定语从句:His wife who is now in Paris is one of my old classmates.

    非限定性定语从句:His wife, who is now in Paris, is one of my old classmates.

    因为限定性定语从句对先行词起着修饰限定作用,所以具有特指功能,所以第一句中的限定性定语从句意味着是特指他在巴黎的妻子,其潜台词就是他不只一个妻子,也许在上海或者在纽约等其他地方还有妻子。

    而非限定性定语从句只对先行词起着补充说明作用,没有特指功能,所以第二句中的非限定性定语从句只是用来补充说明他的妻子现在人在巴黎这个事实。

    2、that和why不能用来引导非限定性定语从句

    that不能用来连接非限定性定语从句,具体的请看下一节的内容。

    而why因为总是紧跟先行词reason,所以也不能用于引导非限定性定语从句。如:

    That's the reason why he was late for school this morning.

    在reason和why之间,不能插入逗号。

    图片

    四、关系代词

    英语里能够用来连接定语从句的关系代词主要有:

    that:表人或物

    which:表物

    who:表人(主格或宾格)

    whom:表人(宾格)

    whose:表人或物(所有格)

    (一)that引导的定语从句

    that引导定语从句时,其先行词既可能是人,也可能是物。如:

    This is the photo that I took during the trip in France.

    He is the man that will visit our school next week.

    【注意】

    1、当that的先行词表物时,可以用which来替换。此外,当that在从句中作宾语时,可以省略。如:

    This is the photo that/which I took during the trip in France.

    This is the photo I took during the trip in France.

    句中的先行词the photo在从句I took during the trip in France中作took的宾语,所以可以省略。

    2、不能用that的情况

    1)当定语从句以介词开头时,一般不用that,而要用which或whom。如:

    This is the pet dog for which I paid five hundred pounds.

    She is the girl to whom I talked just now.

    两句话的定语从句分别以介词for和to开头,所以后面不能再用that,而要采用which和whom。

    2)当先行词是that时,往往用which来替换。如:

    We have that which we need.

    此时,that which往往可以用what来替换,因此我们可以把上面的句子改为:

    We have what we need.

    3)在非限定性定语从句中。如:

    错误:His aunt, that is our maths teacher, often gives us candies as gifts.

    正确:His aunt, who is our maths teacher, often gives us candies as gifts.

    3、只能用that的情况

    1)当先行词为everything、all,little、much等不定代词时。如:

    All that glitters is not gold.

    2)当先行词被all、every、no、any、some、little、much、one修饰时。如:

    Don't waste any water that is reusable.

    3)当先行词被the only、the very、the same、the last修饰时。如:

    They are the only students that will attend the meeting.

    4)当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。如:

    This is the first time that I have ever heard about a ghost.

    5)当先行词是be的表语或there be 的主语时。如:

    There are five pens that will be on display tomorrow.

    6)当先行词有人又有物时。如:

    We don't like the teacher and his lessons that are not interesting at all.

    7)当主句是以who或which及其-ever结构开头的特殊疑问句时。如:

    Whoever that breaks the law will be punished.

    4、多用who、不用that的情况

    1)当先行词为anyone、one、ones时。如:

    He is the one who will teach us English.

    2)当先行词为those、he和people时。如:

    Those who want to ask questions need to write them down first.

    图片